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April 4, 2024
Enoch Tetteh

When is the Best Time to Plant?

When is the Best Time to Plant?


Plant: a living organism of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and mosses, typically growing in a permanent site, absorbing water and inorganic substances through its roots, and synthesizing nutrients in its leaves by photosynthesis using the green pigment chlorophyll.

We tend to forget the importance of plants and often take them for granted. You may think there is nothing much to the plants and trees that are around us every day but they are vital for life and our long-term survival. Plants are an essential resource - we rely on them for food, water, medicine, the air we breathe, our climate and more. But planting is also the verb of planting our seeds in the soil and hoping for best plant growth and crop yield.

In Ghana we are now getting in to a core part of the agricultural calendar: the planting season. Whilst the planting season is commencing, we entreat all farmers to run a soil test before planting. It is essential to help you to understand the nutrients in your soil and what you need to add, it will help you save time and money. It is also the essential first step in planning your nutrient budget (read more about that here).

The purpose of this article is to consider when the best time is to plant your seeds. Establishing a seed planting calendar is one of the oldest and wisest farming maxims. The success of many vegetable and crop sowing is getting the seed started at the right time of the year for germination, growing, and harvesting.

Planting at the right time will greatly enhance your harvest.

Before You Start Planting

Before you think about planting it is very important to think about what you are planting your seeds into. This is the soil! If the soil is not ready to receive the seeds properly, then there will never be the best chances to get the best yield.

Key things to remember before planting:

  • Make sure your seedbed is prepared
  • Make sure your soil has been tested and you know what nutrients are required throughout the growing season
  • Make sure you have applied Calciprill® or another form of agricultural lime to ensure that soil acidity will not be a limiting factor
  • Make sure you are using the right seeds: improved Hybrids or OPV varieties
  • Make sure your seeds are treated with inoculant (either Rizoliq® for soy and Eco-T® for all crops)


Maize should be planted around 2 weeks after the rains have established. We wait for the rains to establish themselves properly because the soil needs to have a certain level of moisture to allow for proper seed development. Nevertheless, you can take steps to increase the resilience of your seeds by using the right seed varieties and treating maize seeds with Eco-T to ensure proper germination and growth.

Field experiments were conducted to determine the optimum time for planting maize in the various ecological zones of Ghana in order to achieve good yields. Initial data showed that:

  • At Kwadaso in the forest zone, mid-March planting gave the best yield
  • In the forest-savanna mosaic zone, mid-March and mid-April planting gave top yields, the results at these dates not being significantly different from each other.
  • Late-May to mid-June planting was found best for conditions in the guinea savanna zone,
  • In the coastal savanna planting in the 2nd-3rd week of April showed the best results. In many cases planting 2 weeks early or late, relative to the optimum date, led to 40-55% losses in crop yield.

Learn more about maize here.


Plant soybean early, once rains have established.

Planting soybeans early in the season can help maximize grain yields. Early planting leads to a longer growing season which can increase the number of flowering nodes on the soybean main stem. More flowers lead to more pods, more seeds, and increased grain at harvest. Benefits of early planting include a larger canopy earlier in the growing season, which can help conserve soil moisture and reduce competition from weeds. Planting should occur once the summer rains have established.

The most important thing to consider with soy planting is to ensure that the seeds are treated with soybean inoculant. Multiple studies have shown that the best investment that any soy farmer can make in his or her farm is to buy inoculant. Please contact one of our agronomists to get your Rizoliq®, an inoculant that is essential for profitable soybean yields.

Learn more about soybean here.


Warm-season vegetables require a minimum soil planting temperature of  (10°C). The optimal soil planting temperature for tropical crops is  (16°C). These crops do best when the air and soil temperatures reach  (18-30°C). Most tropical vegetables require at least (24°C) for minimum growth.

Tropical vegetables can be classified as tender and very tender.

Tender Vegetables:
  • Tomatoes
  • Sweet corn
  • Snap beans

Very Tender Vegetables:

  • Watermelon
  • Cucumber
  • Okra
  • Pepper
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Eggplant

Tender vegetables should be planted 1-2 weeks before very tender vegetables. Remember that a lot of vegetables need to be nursed and the nursery needs shade and regular watering (but should not be over-watered).

Log on to for more information about your chosen crops, or contact one of our in-house agronomists at 0245297049.


As we conclude, the essence of successful farming lies in preparation and timely action. From soil testing to choosing the right planting time, every step is crucial for a good yield. This blog aims to equip you with the starting knowledge for better crop management.

Remember, whether you're an experienced farmer or a newcomer, adopting a scientific approach and following best practices can make a significant difference in your harvest. If questions arise, don't hesitate to reach out to our agronomists at 0245297049. Our team is ready to offer the support you need.

Let this blog be a practical guide for your farming journey. By applying these insights, you're setting the stage for a productive and sustainable harvest.

If you have any questions whatsoever about your farm, please do get in touch with our agronomists at 0245297049 or

Get your soil tested so we can create custom blends for your soil type.

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